Getting credit for your work

ORCID: Get a persistent unique identifier that will allow your publications to be uniquely associated with you. This is critical if you have a common name.
Other researchers can also add your ORCID when they acknowledge you to make it easier to find where you have received credit.

Google Scholar profile: Make it easy for others to fund your awesome publications

My NCBI Bibliography: Tell the NIH what papers you have published so you can cite them in grant proposals

Authorship issues

PNAS Perspective on transparency in authorship | PLoS Blog post | Science editorial

Retraction Watch: A news outlet covering retractions in the scientific literature

Publication ethics

Hwang Woo-suk: A South Korean stem cell biologist who fabricated high-profile human cloning papers and coerced female employees into donating eggs for flawed experiments

The Facebook emotional contagion study published in PNAS was conducted without IRB approval, but PNAS insisted they had the right to compromise their own editorial policies and defended their decision to publish it anyway.

In 2007, Geoffrey Chang, a prominent structural biologist at Scripps, retracted a large fraction of all known membrane protein crystal structures. The retraction claims a home-brewed script was at fault. Others highlighted the lessons for transparency in scientific software. Some interesting perspectives from the world of drug discovery can be found on Derek Lowe's blog.

bioRxiv has now established itself as the main preprint server for the life sciences

Ron Vale has a great perspective piece on why you should publish preprints

ASAPBio is a clearinghouse for preprint-related news

Bodo Stern and Erin O'Shea (HHMI president) have important recommendations for how to transform life science publication through open peer review

Preprints and post-publication review